1 Art X: (see page definition)
2 A Sample Lesson for a Hypothetical Course: The term coined by Charles Eames to refer to their project. This straightforward description adequately defines the role of Art X.
3 Art 120. Art 130, Art 140 The course titles of the UGA art program following the Art X experiment. These introductory classes combined art history and art theory. In addition, the courses were "designed" by the faculty to instill specific goals in an repeatable manner.
4 Tooled Education (MTE) The term for the technique of using automated multimedia to teach and present information. Modern Tooled Education, in particular, attempts to generate content based on the example of Art X.
5 The Moscow Exhibition (Glimpses of the United States) In 1959, a trade exhibition of between Russia and the United States developed to take the place of a World's Fair cancellled because of the state of the political climate. The American contribution errected in Moscow and demonstrated daily life through a showcase of goods and documentary composed in a style based on Art X.
6 The Lamar Dodd School of Art The art program of the The University of Georgia which gained national prestige through its director Lamar Dodd. The combination of his vision and support from grants allowed a pioneer attitude in the formation of the his program.
7 General Education Board Grant (The Rockekeller Foundation) A grant offered in the mid 1900's that allowed instituitions of higher education to increase the scopes of their programs. Lamar Dodd used a portion of his grant award to bring George Nelson to The University of Georgia, which resulted in the formation of the Advisory Board that produced Art X.
8 Traditional Academy Methods of Fine Art Teaching There is no universal governing board of what constitutes fine art or how it is produced. However, there are conventions that have been codified by certain influential instituitions. Despite the stylistic emphases of different schools the concepts of "art master and apprentice," and the traditional strategies of teaching by example, practice, and negative feedback are practically monolithic. These notions were, in part, challenged by the Advisory Board, in a unpopular dissent. Many educators both then and now believe that the fine art academy is rare and vanishing santuary for pure human teaching and it should be exempt from automated or computer assisted interactions.
9 "The Problems of Design" One of George Nelson's book of compiled media essays. Nelson composes his own perspective on what he was attempting to do with Art X and where their work might lead.
10 Multiple Screen Arrays Presenting information on a series of screens or windows allows for a montage of images. By juxtaposing images the viewer can form relationships and make connections in a less mediated way. Experiments in the physical arrangement of projection screens by the Advisory Board attempted to address the physical manner in which viewers absorb visual information. Developments in cognitive psychology, especially descriptive models like Gestalt theory, allowed for breakthroughs in demonstration techniques.
11 The IBM Think Pavillion (1964 World's Fair) An exhibition that included a multiple screen exhibition that continued experimentation from the Moscow Exhibition. The exhibit was designed by Charles Eames colleague Eero Sarrinen.
12 Historical Revelance of Art X is recognized as an important step in media development within the fields of virtual reality, documentary film, and exhibition design. However, besides being a footnote, the demonstration was well publicized and traveled. Futhermore, the subsequent careers of the advisory board and the faculty of the UGA continued the dialogue in different venues for decades after the debut.
13 Instituitional Teaching The impact of Art X on the contemporary world of higher education is felt in a more sublimimated way then was orginally envisioned. Inspired experiments in the fields of film have been imitated and passed down even where the source has been forgotten. In the particular case of Art X's origin, the University of Georgia has adopted the name to its own new media discipline.
14 Automated Industry The needs of industry have always effected the role of education, yet never before had the methods of industry been so deliberately applied to the problem. The fear of applying such industry standards as time motion studies is that automation might create automatons. The use of educational films, computer programs, and automated slide shows are almost ubiquitous.
15 Gestalt Theory A descriptive model of psychology that notes how the human brain perceives shapes and forms models. Art educators implemented these ideas into deconstructing and communicating the principles to learning artists.
16 Communication Theory The Advisory Board chose to illuminate a lesson on "Communication Theory" in their Art X demonstration. This concept, sufficiently complex, was a criticial choice. More than a collection of facts to memorize, such a topic encompasses a way of thinking.
17 Cognitive Theory Art X attempted to synthesize the new understanding of how the human mind works to process information into their presentation techniques. As an analogy consider a computer as a simplified version of how a brain stores and calls on data, by using this example the advisory board attempted to encode information in an optimum way. They hoped to provide useful tags, supporting examples and connections to exisiting models to ensure understanding in students.
18 Picasso, Sherman, Dodd Pablo Picasso, a painter and expert study of art history is credited with implementing a form of abstraction called, "Cubism." Hoyt Sherman is a artist and educator who explored the ways a human brain perceives shapes, inspired by Gestalt Psychology. Lamar Dodd is a painter and art educator who studied as a part of the Ashcan School and acted as a cultural editor of art through his work on the Carnegie Project.
19 Ekphrasis The multimedia project of Art X involved every available form of simulated experience as well as creatively combining them. Aspects of the experience were not unlike contermporary equivalents, however their implementation was quite innovative. The first analogy would be that of an ordinary film experience: the audience sat in a dark room facing a wall filled with projection and sat idle for a set duration of time. This projection differs in its use of multiple screens which broadcast simulataneous images, and in some cases multiple views of the same image. In addition, their are accompanying diagrams and amplifying displays which the audience absorbs. The timing of the information is also crucial to the Art X design, with carefully planned packets of information in varied yet related subjects. Meanwhile, audio accompaniment coming from speakers weas played at such a volume that the audience could feel the vibrations through their seats. Finally, synthetic smells were pumped throught he air conditioning vents in such a way as to match the visual stimuli.
20 Charles and Ray Eames An LA based Design team and husband and wife who provided a poetic sensibility to the Art X experiment. Charles Eames philosophy of design and one of a kind studio contributed to the sucess of Art X.
21 Buckminster Fuller An architect who designed the famous geodesic dome which was used to good effect to house, Glimpses of the United States, in Moscow. Nelson had put Fuller up in Herman Miller's offices and their dynamic and interdisciplinary view of design made their exhibition possible.
22 George Nelson A world famous media critic who led Herman Miller Inc to great success. His capacity as resourceful leader was put to the test in Athens and in Moscow. His philosophy of modern design which put functionality over tradition proved influential as well as revolutionary.
23 Alexander Girard A designer based out of Michigan, who contributed the displays for the Art X program. With Nelson in New York, the Eames in Los Angeles, and Girard in Detroit, the hubs of the United States were represented within the program.
24 Lamar Dodd A painter who applied his passion for teaching at the University of Georgia, while maintaining a career of some renown. His advisory capacity for the Carnegie Survey and his role in the Art X experiment are among some of his most important contributions to Art Education.
25 Irwin Breithaupt A Professor of Art at The University of Georgia who studied at Ohio State and was familiar with Sherman's work. His knowledge and selfless work put his own General Education Board grant to good effect. After the pilot demonstration, Breithaupt was instrumental in putting the concept to work in the new curriculum of the Art 100 courses. Among his duties as the Head of Graphic Design was the physical production of slides by hand for the coures.
26 Richard J. Olsen A painter and Professor at the University of Georgia whom taught the Art 100 courses. Having taught with no first hand experience with the orginal demonstration, caused a necessary evolution of the teaching process.
27 Hoyt L. Sherman An artist and teacher at Ohio State University who made important efforts in the study of cognition in teaching artists. His flash laboratory and teaching strategies made signifigant impact on the Art 100 courses through his book DRAWING BY SEEING and through his students.
28 Harold McWhinnie A professor at The University of Maryland and author who published with Sherman. His assessment of Sherman's impact is one of the few available. McWhinnie gives credit to Leonard Edmonstson for bringing Sherman's methods to UGA.
29 Slides and Slide Projectors Slides taken from photographs by the Advisory Board made up the bulk of the original presentation. These glass artifacts were manually switched in time with the recording on the three different screens.
30 Reel to reel tape and players and speakers A analogue recording system to capture sound. This was the way in which the advisory board simulated audio for their presentation.
31 16 mm Film and Projectors The Advisory board used this type of film which included both original pieces and excerpts from other's work, including a french survey of caligraphy. The Eames enlisted the help of Elmer Bernstein to score some of their work.
32 Bottles of Synthetic Smells and Air Condititioner The advisory board accented their lessons with synthetic scents that matched the visual stimuli and were distributed by the air conditioning system. The audience, for instance, smelled yeast during a lesson in how bread is baked. Meanwhile, the sensory cues caused the audience to perceive other smells even where there were none supplied according to their feedback.
33 Tachistoscope and hand made slides Tachistoscopes were slide projectors which connected to timer could generate an image for a fraction of a second. These tools developed intially the air force to test whether a fighter pilot could recognize an enemy plane in battle conditions, were used by art educators to train artists in how to see.
34 Audience, Proctor, technicians, designer, academy This is a simplfied chain of command in the collaborative process of teaching using the Art X example. In reverse over from the receiver and producer, the audience contains individuals who are presumably capable, learned, and interested in the special method of automated teaching. The Proctor is the instructor of the courses who acts at host and mediator for the students. The technicians are those individuals responisible for the physical construction and matience of the program, including the necessary projections, sound equipment, and other media. The designer is perhaps the role most akin to that of the traditional instructor, in that they must conceive of how to bring the research and history to life through media. The Academy is the institution or body in charge of cultivating and maintaining the curriulum for which the designer programs and the student is responsible.
1937-Lamar Dodd becomes head of the UGA art program
1947 Hoyt Sherman publishes "Drawing by Seeing"
1952- (June) George Nelson meets with Lamar Dodd (Add Eames and Girard to form a Committee)
1953- Debut of Art X and six subsequent shows
1954- Traveling Demonstrations at UCLA and various Universities
1955-Advisory Commitee returns to witness Art 120 course demonstration
1959- Moscow Exhibition (Glimpses of the USA)
1964- IBM Think Exhibition at the World's Fairt
1980- General Education Board Grant finishes at UGA
-Nelson Meets Dodd
-Nelson visit classes
-Nelson presents findings to faculty resulting in a proposed Advisory Board
-Nelson invites Eames to join who invites Alexander Girard to join
-Investigate the problem and return to their 3 corners of the US to work on the problem
-Subcommitee presents their prototype to the Art School and community including the New York Times
-Art 120 course structure s proposed and implemented at UGA
"Art X: A new media prototype"
(Images of art x media)
"Art X is the term coined by George Nelson which refers to their prototype use of multimedia to teach. Art X was demonstrated multiple times for the staff of the University of Georgia as an example of how to improve traditional teaching methods."
"Tooled Education: How it works"
(diagrams and illustrations of the artifacts and tools used)
"Tooled Education is the use of automated methods of presenting a curriculum of teaching. Using the example of Art X, practitioners of Tooled Education exploit available technology to present information to an audience in the optimum way to maximize retention and understanding. The essential components of tooled education are the screen and the computer. "
"An Advisory Subcommitee: Designers of Modern Education"
(Images of Eames, Nelson, Girard, Dodd)
"The advisory board formed at the request of Lamar Dodd used all the resources of their respective studios as well as the input of the art school faculty to tackle the design problem of how to optimize education."
"Glimpses of the USA: A World Debut"
(Image of Glimpses)
"Glimpses of the USA was the title of a multimedia documentary that illustrated the reality of the contemporary American life to Russians as a part of trade exhibition. This production utilized strategies developed for Art X. The thousands of photographic images used to compose a montage of American landscapes communicated complex thoughts as well as providing a meaningful virtual experience."
"Art 120 130 140: What came next"
(images of slides and tachistocope)
"The Art X demonstration acted as a pilot progrom for what would become a brand new curriculum for art students at the Lamar Dodd School of Art. Faculty members literally tore down walls between studios implementing the interdisciplinary method of combining history teaching with application."
"When it comes together: A timeline"
"Art X, the Art 120 courses, along with the Moscow Exhibition are all examples of synthesizing the available resources to address the needs of an audience. There is still plenty of work left to be done on the frontier created by these forms. A conclusively complete experiment in teaching with these concepts have yet to be implemented with the full support of an institution with the resources now available. This timeline helps chart the trajectory of these beginnings."
- ▼ August (10)